NAG kit

Robinson D and Stirling JL (1968)

N-Acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase in human Spleen. Biochem J, 107, 321-327.


Swallow DM, Stokes DC, Corney C and Harris H (1974)

Differences between the N-acetyl Hexosaminidase isoenzymes in serum and tissues. Ann Hum Genet London, 37, 287-302.


Yuen C-T, Price RG, Richardson AC and Praill PFG (1981)

The assay of arylesterase in serum using two new colorimetric substrates, w-nitro styryl acetate and propionate. Clin Chim Acta, 112, 99-105.


Yuen C-T, Price RG, Chattagoon L, Richardson AC and Praill PFG (1982)

Colorimetric assays for N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and ß-D-galactosidase in human urine using newly-developed w-nitrostyryl substrates. Clin Chim Acta, 124, 195-204.


Yuen C-T, Kind PRN, Price RG, Praill PFG and Richardson AC (1984)

Colorimetric assay for N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG) in pathological urine using the w-nitrostyryl substrate: the development of a kit and the comparison of manual procedure with the automated fluorimetric method. Ann Clin Biochem, 21, 295-300.


Dewji NN, De Keyser DR and Stirling JL (1986)

Purification and characterization of b-N-acetylhexosaminidase I2 form from human liver. Biochem J, 234, 157-162.


Taylor SA, Richardson AC, Praill PFG and Price RG (1990)

A new colorimetric kit for the assay of N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase in urine. Clin Chem News, 16, 24-26.


Posci I, Taylor SA, Richardson AC, Aamlid KH, Smith BV and Price RG (1990)

VRA-GlcNAc: Novel substrate for N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase applied to assay of this enzyme in urine. Clin Chem, 36, 1884-1888. [PAJ]


Price RG (1991)

New colorimetric substrates for the assay of hydrolytic enzymes: N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) – an improved test for the assessment of renal disease. A Review. CHEMISTRY TODAY (CHIMMICA oggi), 6, 15-19.


Pocsi I, Csathy L, Olah V A, Price RG (1991)

Assay of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase in neonate urine: comparison of two new colorimetric methods using MNP-GlcNAc and VRA-GlcNAc as substrates. Ann Clin Chem, 29, 292-295. [PAJ]


Price RG (1992)

The role of NAG (N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase) in the Diagnosis of kidney Disease including the monitoring of Nephrotoxicity. Clin Nephrology, 38, Suppl. 1, S14-S19.


Price RG (1992)

The measurement of Urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes, Methods and Clinical Applications. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem, 30, 693-705.


Mueller PW, Price RG and Porter GA (1997)

Urinary biomarkers to Detect significant Effects of environmental and Occupational Exposure to Nephrotoxins – Overview. Renal Failure, 19(4), 501-504. [PAJ]


Skalova S (2005)

The diagnostic role of urinary N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the detection of renal tubular impairment. Acta Medica, 48(2), 75-80.


Liangos O., Perianayagam MC., Vaidya VS. et al, (2007)

Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase Activity and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Level Are Associated with Adverse Outcomes in Acute Renal Failure, J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 904-912


Sheira G., Noreldin N., Tamer A. and Saad M (2015)

Urinary biomarker N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase can predict severity of renal damage in diabetic nephropathy. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 14:4, DOI 10.1186/s40200-015-0133-6


Letizia Zeni, Anthony G. W. Norden,  Giovanni Cancarini and  Robert J. Unwin (2017)

A more tubulocentric view of diabetic kidney disease. Journal of Nephrology, DOI 10.1007/s40620-017-0423-9


Zalewska-Szajada et al (2018)

Pediatric reference data on activity of urinary N-acetly-β-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes. Advances in medical sciences 63:94-99



Hoffmann R, Wenzel E, Huth A van der Steen P, Schaufel M, Henninger HP and Happle R. (1994)

Cytokine mRNA levels in alopecia areata before and after treatment with the contact allergen diphenylcyclopropenone. J Invest Dermatol, 103, 530-533.


Buckley DA, Keane FM, Munn SE, Fuller LC, Higgins EM and du Vivier AWP (1999)

Recalcitrant warts treated by diphencyprone immunotherapy. British Journal of Dermatology. 141, 292-296.


Sterling JC, Handfield-Jones S and Hudson PM (2000)

Guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts. Brit J dermatology, 144, 4-11.


Happle R (2002)

Diphencyprone for the treatment of Alopaecia areata, more data and new aspects [Editorial]. Arch Dermatol, 138, 1123-113.


Higgins E and du Vivier A (2002)

Topical immunotherapy: Unapproved uses, dosages or indications. Clinics in dermatology, 20, 515-521.


Trefzer U and Sterry W (2005)

Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone in combination with DTIC and radiation for cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Dermatology, 211,370-371.


Damian DL and Johnson JF (2007)

Treatment of extensive cutaneous metastatic melanoma with topical diphencyprone. J Am Acad Dermatol, 56, 869-871.


Damian DL, Shannon KF, Saw RP and Thompson JF (2009)

Topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Australas J Dermatol. 50(4), 266-71.


Martindale (2009)

The complete Drug Reference, Dermatological Drugs and sunscreens, Diphencyprone (Sweetman S, Ed) London Pharmaceutical Press., 35th Edition.


El-Zawahry B, Bassiouny D, Khella A and Zaki N (2010)

Five-year experience in the treatment of alopecia areata with DPC. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24, 264–269.


Singh G and Lavanya MS (2010)

Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia areata. Int J Trichology, 2(1), 36-39.


Salsberg JM and Donovan J (2012)

The safety and efficacy of diphencyprone for the treatment of alopecia areata in children. Arch Dermatol, 148(9), 1084-5.


Kim YJ (2012)

Topical diphencyprone as an effective treatment for cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Ann Dermatol, 24(3), 373-5.


Kutty A, Harper F and Akhras V (2013)

Treatment of multiple bilateral primary eccrine porocarcinoma with topical diphencyprone: a case report. Br J Dermatol, 2013 Jun 18.


El-Zawahry BM, Azzam OA, Zaki NS, Abdel-Raheem HM, Bassiouny DA and Khorshied MM (2013)

PTPN22 gene polymorphism in Egyptian alopecia areata patients and its impact on response to diphencyproneimmunotherapy. Gene, 523(2), 147-51.


Audrain H, Siddiqui H and Buckley DA (2013)

Diphencyprone immunotherapy for viral warts in immunosuppressed patients. Br J Dermatol, 168(5), 1138-9.




Sanchez-Bernal CS, Robinson G, Miles RJ and Price RG (1994)

Development of a sensitive and quantitative enzyme-linked immunofilter assay (ELIFA) for whole bacterial cells. J Microbiol Meth, 19, 135-143.


Paffard SM, Miles RJ, Clark CR and Price RG (1996)

A sensitive forty minute enzyme linked immunofilter assay (ELIFA) for whole bacterial cells. J Immunol Meth, 192, 133-136.


Paffard SM, Miles RJ, Clark CR and Price RG (1997)

Amplified Enzyme-Linked-Immunofilter assays (ELIFAs) enable detection of 5 – 105 Bacterial cells within One hour. Analyt Biochem, 248, 265-268.



Cooke VM, Miles RJ, Price RG, Midgley G, Khamri W and Richardson AC (2002)

A new chromogenic medium for the detection of Candida Spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 3622-3627.



Browne NK, Huang Z, Dockrell M, Hashmi P and Price RG (2009)

Evaluation of new chromogenic substrates for the detection of coliforms. J Clin Microbiol, 108, 1828-1838.



Khan L, Richardson AC, Price RG, Nicholas R and Miles R (2000)

A chromogenic substrate for the rapid detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis. 13th Congress of the International Organisation for Mycoplasmology (Abstract) P-L21.



Cooke VM, Miles RJ, Price RG and Richardson AC (1999)

A novel chromogenic ester agar medium for the detection of Salmonellae. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 65, 807-812.




Aamlid KH, Lee G, Price RG, Richardson AC, Smith BV and Taylor SA (1989)

Development of improved chromogenic substrates for the detection and assay of hydrolytic enzymes. Chem & Ind, 106-108.


Aamlid KH, Lee G, Smith BV, Richardson AC and Price RG (1990)

New colorimetric substrates for the assay of glycosidases. Carbohydrate Res, 205, C5-C9.


Posci I, Taylor SA, Richardson AC, Aamlid KH, Smith BV and Price RG (1990)

VRA-GlcNAc: Novel substrate for N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase applied to assay of this enzyme in urine. Clin Chem, 36, 1884-1888.



Bainbridge BW, Mathias N, Price RG, Richardson AC, Sandhu J and Smith BV (1991)

Improved method for the detection of ß-galactosidase activity in colonies of Escherichia coli using a New chromogenic substrate. FEMS Microbiological Lett. 80, 319-324.


Pocsi I, Taylor SA, Richardson AC, Smith BV and Price RG. (1993)

Comparison of several new galactosides as substrates for various ß-D-Galactosidases. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1163, 54-60.



Yuen C-T, Price RG, Richardson AC and Praill PFG (1981)

The assay of arylsterase in serum using two new colorimetric substrates, w-nitrostyrylacetate and propionate. Clin. Chim. Acta, 112, 99-105.


Miles RJ, Siu ELT, Carrington C, Richardson AC, Smith BV and Price RG (1992)

The detection of Lipase activity in Bacteria using Novel substrates. FEMS Microbiological Lett. 90, 283-288.



Price RG (2000)

Urinalysis to exclude and monitor nephrotoxicity. Clin Chim Acta 297, 173-182.


Whiting PH and Price RG (2001)

Importance of early detection of renal dysfunction: value of markers of early renal disease and damage. Clinical Biochemistry, 3(1), 3-8.


Olah AC, Price RG, Csathy L, Orszagh E, Olah E and Varga J (2004)

Age dependence of serum ß-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAG). Clin Chem Lab Med. 42, 305-306.


Hart SGE (2005)

Assessment of renal injury in vivo. J Pharmacological and Toxicological. Methods, 52, 30-45.


Coca SG, Yalavarthy R, Concato J and Parikh CR (2008)

Biomarkers for the diagnosis and risk stratification of cutee kidney injury: A systematic review. Kidney Int. 73(9), 1008-1016.


Han WK, Waikar SS, Johnson A, Betensky RA, Dent CL, Devarajan P and Bonventre JV (2008)

Urinary biomarkers in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 73, 863-869.